Radek, Khol, and Gowan, Richard, and Van Camp, Serge, and Biscop, Sven, and Lindley-French, Julian, and Heise, Volker. (2005) E Pluribus Unum? Military Integration in the European Union. Egmont Paper, no. 7, May 2005. [Policy Paper]
The adoption of the Headline Goal 2010 and the decision to create rapidly deployable ‘battlegroups’ are proof of the continued dynamism of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). Yet, although major progress has been booked in recent years, and further important achievements can be expected in the short term, not all questions relating to ESDP have already been addressed by policy-makers. All EU Member States are engaged in the transformation of their armed forces. Because of budgetary constraints, this is necessarily a gradual process. Furthermore, for most of the Member States it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain the traditional wide range of capabilities in army, navy and air force. This paper will set out to assess whether cooperation, pooling and specialisation in the framework of the EU can offer an answer to these challenges.
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