Jolly, Mette E. (2003) "Debating democracy in the European Union - four concurrent paradigms". In: UNSPECIFIED, Nashville, TN. (Unpublished)
This paper seeks to explain the apparent lack of progress in the debate about democracy in the European Union. It will be argued that a number of different paradigms exist within the literature that are failing to communicate effectively with each other. The paper will open by presenting some of the methodological problems faced by researchers, followed by a discussion of analytical and operational definitions of the term "the democratic deficit". On the basis of these discussions, four paradigms with the literature on democracy in the EU will be identified: One paradigm (the efficiency paradigm) asks to which extent output can satisfy legitimacy requirements. A second paradigm-the vertical democracy paradigm-is pre-occupied with links between the RU and national levels of government, whereas a third paradigm, the horizontal democracy paradigm, discusses how greater democracy can be ensured via changes in the division of powers between EU institutions. Finally, the socio-psychological paradigm debates what the lack of a European demos means for the future of the EU. The paper will show how these four paradigms exist alongside each other and that real dialogue exists only within each debate, hence the term "paradigm." It will be concluded that it is time to introduce greater, real communication between the four paradigms in order to achieve a productive debate. Some questions-such as from where it is intended, and could realistically be expected, that the EU should derive its legitimacy-need to be addressed before others of a more institutional nature can be settled in a meaningful way.
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