Apap, Joanna. (2002) The Development of European Citizenship and Its Relevance to the Integration of Refugees. CEPS Working Document No. 180, January 2002. [Working Paper]
Achieving an integrated Europe involves political and social unity as much as economic integration. Thus, the issue of European citizenship is central to the debate about European integration. Union citizenship needs to be distinguished from national citizenship. Every citizen of the Union enjoys a first circle of nationality rights within a member state and a second circle of new rights enjoyed in any member state of the EU. The presence of immigrants in Europe also raises wider questions for government policy in the field of citizenship. There are various issues that arise in the European context with respect to the boundaries of citizenship. One of the main questions in this regard is the extent to which the division between European Union citizens and third country nationals will continue to prevail. This paper aims to analyse: · Who are the different groups of third country nationals residing in the EU? · Which criteria are used to grant refugee status? · What rights are entailed in such a status? · How does refugee status compare to European citizenship? · Would the extension of European citizenship rights guarantee a true integration of these groups of persons.
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