Vifell, Asa. (2007) Enclaves within the State: Internationalisation and democracy in the Swedish public administration. In: UNSPECIFIED, Montreal, Canada. (Unpublished)
As states are becoming more embedded in complex structures of international and transnational governance tangible effects are being seen in terms of the adjustment of the national administrations coping with international decision making processes. The national adjustment can be seen, not only in terms of formal regulation being made outside the state, which has been the focus of most studies of Europeanization and internationalisation, but also in terms of changed practices among the state actors. This paper focuses on the demands placed on national administrations while participating in international decision making. The paper defines the concept of enclaves as more theoretically founded and empirically adequate than common concepts of networks and policy communities often used to describe international cooperation. Parts of the national administration become embedded in transnational context and follow the rules and working procedures seen as legitimate there. The closest colleagues are those from other member states and international organisations. At the same time they get partly detached from the national level and become enclaves in the national administration. The paper investigates the case of the Swedish public administration and its participation in negotiations: on climate change (UN), employment policy (EU) and trade facilitation (WTO). A theoretical framework, combining theories of governance with more explanatory theories on decision making, is applied to the three empirical cases. The second aim of the study concerning democratic legitimacy is carried out through a number of indicators derived from the deliberative and the representative models of democracy.
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