Tocci, Nathalie. (2001) 21st Century Kemalism: Redefining Turkey-EU Relations in the Post-Helsinki Era. CEPS Working Document No. 170, September 2001. [Working Paper]
The initial wave of optimism in Turkey-EU relations following the 1999 Helsinki summit has given way to a renewed period of scepticism and mutual mistrust between the two partners. Based upon an analysis of the Kemalist political context and the attitudes and positions of both Turkey and the EU towards each other, this paper makes some suggestions on how to revitalise Turkey-EU relations. The EU could complement Turkey’s EU accession process with a concrete 'European strategy' for Turkey including trade, monetary, security and foreign policy elements. This could both reinforce the rapprochement between the two and accelerate Turkish democratic reform in the 21st century.
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