Arias, Aimee Kanner. (2008) The European Union's International Political Capacity into the 21st Century. Jean Monnet/Robert Schuman Paper Series Vol. 8 No. 14, July 2008. [Working Paper]
[From the Introduction]. During more than 50 years the European Union (EU) has made great progress in many areas, developing from a small community of coal and steel to a robust economic and political union. Part of this growth has come in the form of the EU’s external relations despite the fact that the EU has relatively minimal military capabilities. Rather than using military force to achieve its international goals, the EU has relied on trade pacts; economic, political and humanitarian agreements; and institutionalized diplomatic relations. Although the threat of force is not an option for the EU, it has attained significant international influence and compliance with its international agreements. This is a testament to the international political capacity of the European Union.
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