Roy, Joaquín. (2003) The European Union Perception of Cuba: From Frustration to Irritation. Jean Monnet/Robert Schuman Paper Series, Vol. 3 No.2, August 2003. [Working Paper]
Fidel Castro dramatically selected the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of his failed attack against the Moncada Barracks in Santiago de Cuba on July 26, 1953, for his rejection of any kind of humanitarian assistance, economic cooperation, and political dialogue with the European Union (EU) and its Member States, signaling one of the lowest points in European-Cuban relations. (1) Just days before the anniversary of what history would later recognize as the prelude to the Cuban Revolution, the European Union’s Foreign Relations Council issued a harsh criticism of the regime’s latest policies and personal insults against some European leaders (notably, Spain’s José María Aznar), in essence freezing all prospects of closer relations. The overall context was, of course, the global uncertainty of the U.S. occupation of Iraq in the aftermath of the post-September 11 tension. Having survived the end of the Cold War and the perennial U.S. harassment, the Castro regime seemed to have lost its most precious alternative source of international cooperation, if not economic support.
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