Suzuki, Kazuto. (2007) Between Trade and Security: EU's Export Control Regime and Its Global Role. In: UNSPECIFIED, Montreal, Canada. (Unpublished)
The EU's strategies for contributing international security and promoting global trade often contradict each other. On the one hand, EU is enhancing its role in global security issues such as Iranian nuclear development or peacekeeping in the Middle East, but on the other hand, it is encouraging European industry to export high-tech products which might be used for both civil and military purposes. The control on dual-use technology products seems to prevent some concerned parties from acquiring higher military capabilities, but at the same time, prevent European industry from enlarging its market share. Between the Commission and the Member States, who controls the dual-use goods is a crucial question for promoting their industrial and security interests. Currently, the EU sets a single rule and procedure for export control, but Member States own the full capacity to implement these rules. Because of that, the interpretation and exercise of EU rules on export control are not coherent among Member States. This paper examines the difficulties and problems of EU for ensuring its global responsibility for export control on dual-use items. Three aspects of export control should be discussed in this paper. First, how does the EU structure the roles and responsibilities for the Commission and Member States? The Regulation 1334/2000 defines the role of the Commission, but it does not outline the obligations and responsibilities of Member States. Second, how does EU's strategy for improving international competitiveness through defense R&D coordinate with its strategy for export control? The launch of security R&D programs, development of European Defense Technological and Industrial Base (DTIB), and establishment of European Defense Agency (EDA) calls for more prudent approach for controlling the export of high-tech goods. Third, what is the consequence of EU enlargement in 2004? Including states without the experience of COCOM regime may undermine the relatively successful export control system in the EU, and would increase the risks of exporting controlled goods. Through these three aspects, this paper aims to provide analysis of EU's export control and to find whether EU would be able to fulfil its international responsibility for improving security through trade. This study would also have some implication about the troubling relationship between the Commission and the Member States in trade issues as well as security matters.
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