Kurpas, Sebastian, and De Clerck-Sachsse, Julia, and Torreblanca, José I., and Ricard-Nihoul, Gaëtane. (2006) From Threat to Opportunity: Making Flexible Integration Work. EPIN Working Paper, No. 15, 29 September 2006. [Working Paper]
This paper argues for a thorough reappraisal of flexibility as an instrument of integration and outlines the conditions under which it would help the enlarged EU to move forward. Too often in the past, flexibility has been used as an (efficient) threat to induce reluctant or laggard member states to keep pace with the integration process. Therefore, it should not come as a surprise that flexibility has such a poor image in many member states.
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