Philip, Alan Butt. (1995) "David versus Goliath? The Challenge for Environmentalists in the Making and the Implementation of EU Environmental Policy". In: UNSPECIFIED, Charleston, South Carolina. (Unpublished)
[From the introduction]. The rapid development of EU environmental policy since the early 1970s merits continuous research and deserves to elicit surprise Despite the non-representation of this policy area in the founding treaties of the three communities, and the fact that until 1993 all environmental policy decisions had to be approved by unanimous vote of the Council of Ministers, in terms of decision-making results environmental policy measures have enjoyed a rare degree of success Around two hundred environmental policy directives have been passed by the EU, as well as hundreds of other instruments (regulations, recommendations and decisions). The Commission may have deftly moved after the United Nations conference on the environment in Stockholm in 1972 to position Brussels as leader of this particular, fairly virgin policy field, but it is nevertheless a policy field where actions at European level enjoy a high degree of legitimacy in the eyes of public opinion and where EU initiatives have also attracted a wide degree of interest and involvement from non-governmental interests, including commercial as well as environmental interests.
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