Ladrech, Robert. (1991) "The European left and political integration: a new stage in social democracy?". In: UNSPECIFIED, Fairfax, Virginia. (Unpublished)
[From the Introduction]. Since 1987, when the European Community's Single European Act (SEA) went into effect mandating the creation of a single market by the end of 1992, the quantity of studies on this topic has been prolific. Exploring such issues as the motivations for the launching of 'Europe 1992,' forecasts of economic growth, inter-governmental and business elite relations, etc., these analyses have drawn attention to the simple fact that national policymaking, especially economic, is increasingly influenced by supranational inputs. At the same time, or rather for a somewhat longer period, political, scientists have investigated the problematic condition of political parties in advanced industrial democracies. Under several headings - bureaucratic over parliamentary power, neo-corporatist bargaining, party programmes vs. national and international constraints, challenges from new parties and social movements, etc. - the classic linkage role of parties in contemporary representative systems has been called into question.
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