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“Federalism or Functionalism? The Genesis of the European Union, 1919-1945"

Carls, Alice-Catherine (2003) “Federalism or Functionalism? The Genesis of the European Union, 1919-1945". In: UNSPECIFIED, Nashville, Tennessee. (Unpublished)

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      Once dismissed as theoretical and idealistic musings powerless to contain the rise of totalitarianism, interwar projects of European integration are very much in the limelight today. The men and women who dreamed of a new European order between 1919 and 1945 thoroughly examined and evaluated the issues, built and reflected on possible political edifices, and held countless discussions, therefore preparing new generations of leaders as well as readying public opinion. They fascinate us by their wisdom, insight, pragmatism; they came from all walks of life: politicians, trade unionists, churches and clergy, elected officials, intellectuals, artists, philosophers, lobbyists, and businessmen; and they carried forth the dream of peace and happiness that they carried forward. Their legacy is invaluable. We realize how much the European Union owes them, and how necessary their work of reflection and maturing was. The present paper has two goals: firstly, to present a broad historical background, and secondly, to present a new paradigm. Firstly, this paper aims at showing the breadth and depth of interwar actions and discussions promoting European integration, therefore proving their importance – a task that historians have begun, but that has not yet been fully developed. Secondly, this paper aims at discussing more particularly the nature of functionalist and federalist schemes for Europe. Once thought irreconcilable and presented in an either/or dilemma, these schemes will be considered here as building blocks that helped each other after World War II. Their unifying factor was the consensual desire to transcend the nation-state and to build new institutions. This paper is meant to be a departure point toward new interpretations and new research topics.

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      Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (UNSPECIFIED)
      Uncontrolled Keywords: functionalism; Winston Churchill; Aristide Briand; Louis Loucheur; Jean Monnet; Marshall Plan; Coudenhove-Kalergi; International Economic Conference; Adenauer; Gasperi; Spaak; The Idea of Europe; League of Nations; cartels; regionalization; European Federation; Unionists; Federalists; The Hague Congress.
      Subjects for non-EU documents: EU policies and themes > Policies & related activities > political affairs > governance: EU & national level
      Other > integration theory (see also researching and writing the EU in this section)
      EU policies and themes > EU institutions & developments > institutional development/policy > historical development of EC (pre-1986)
      Subjects for EU documents: UNSPECIFIED
      EU Series and Periodicals: UNSPECIFIED
      EU Annual Reports: UNSPECIFIED
      Conference: European Union Studies Association (EUSA) > Biennial Conference > 2003 (8th), March 27-29, 2003
      Depositing User: Alice-Catherine Carls
      Official EU Document: No
      Language: English
      Date Deposited: 08 Apr 2003
      Page Range: p. 9
      Last Modified: 15 Feb 2011 17:15

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