Bauböck, Rainer (1999) Recombinant Citizenship. IHS Political Science Series 67. December 1999. [Working Paper]
Europe has become a laboratory for recombining elements of citizenship. The paper suggests a matrix of citizenship dimensions (membership, rights and practices) and conceptions (liberal, republican and communitarian). The second part discusses three challenges to a monistic view of citizenship as a homogenous status and exclusive link between individuals and a singular political community. First, international migration leads to overlapping multiple citizenship through the proliferation of dual nationality but also “denizenship” rights for foreign residents. Second, claims for territorial autonomy by national minorities have resulted in the devolution of unitary states, creating thereby a nested multilevel citizenship that is also emerging in a different way in the European Union itself. Third, cultural rights of citizenship have been increasingly differentiated according to group membership in response to demands by cultural minorities for protection from discrimination, for special exemptions from general obligations of citizenship, or for public resources and recognition.
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