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“Commercial Applications of Military R&D: U.S. and EU Programs Compared”

Braddon, Derek. (1999) “Commercial Applications of Military R&D: U.S. and EU Programs Compared”. In: UNSPECIFIED, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. (Unpublished)

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    In the peak years of defence spending, towards the end of the Cold War, global military R&D exceeded $120 billion annually with the U.S. at the forefront of the Western nations’ efforts in this field. Indeed, the U.S. contributed some 35% of the global total, creating a situation at the end of the Cold War where, for example, military R&D in the U.S. was approximately five times that devoted to health expenditure and twenty times that targeted on the environment. At the same time, the U.S. devoted 14% of its defense budget to R&D while, in Europe, France committed almost 15%; Sweden just over 12% and the U.K. over 10%. However, such official estimates rarely capture the true scale and scope of military R&D expenditure, even in those nations that chose to release reasonably accurate data. In the U.S., for example, during President Reagan’s terms of office, it has been estimated that over 20% of the aggregate defence R&D budget was categorized as “black” (under which classification no data is revealed publicly) while, for the U.S. airforce R&D budget, the estimate was as much as 40%. Given the complexities and sometimes deliberate obfuscation by governments in defining terms such as “military,” “research,” and “development,” and the variation in such definitions between countries and over time, the reality of this global resource commitment and its distribution remains a matter for conjecture.

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    Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (UNSPECIFIED)
    Subjects for non-EU documents: EU policies and themes > External relations > EU-US
    EU policies and themes > External relations > common foreign & security policy 1993--European Global Strategy
    EU policies and themes > Policies & related activities > rtd (RTD) policy/European Research Area
    EU policies and themes > Policies & related activities > economic and financial affairs > business/private economic activity
    Subjects for EU documents: UNSPECIFIED
    EU Series and Periodicals: UNSPECIFIED
    EU Annual Reports: UNSPECIFIED
    Conference: European Union Studies Association (EUSA) > Biennial Conference > 1999 (6th), June 2-5, 1999
    Depositing User: Phil Wilkin
    Official EU Document: No
    Language: English
    Date Deposited: 05 May 2006
    Page Range: p. 15
    Last Modified: 15 Feb 2011 17:21

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