Puggioni, Raffaela. (2001) "Exploring the inclusion/exclusion dynamic: Asylum-seekers and refugees in Italy". In: UNSPECIFIED, Madison, Wisconsin. (Unpublished)
The argument will be divided into three main parts. In the first part it will be examined the definition of refugee as expressed in the 1951 UN Convention, highlighting why such a definition has a quite limited applicability as result of the incorporation of a statist logic, a logic that privileges, first and foremost, states' (national) protection as opposed to human beings' protection. And thanks to the introduction of the distinction between logic and criteria, it will emerge why the end of the Cold War era has simply witnessed the adoption of new (restrictive) criteria leaving completely unmodified the dominant logic of exclusion. In the second part, it will be analyzed why in Italy, despite the dominance of a logic of exclusion, such as logic has not prevented the emergence of some mechanisms of inclusion (or of non-exclusion) particularly form the local (official and unofficial) networks. And in particular, an analysis of the reception adopted during the "Yugoslav crisis" in the Emilia-Romagna region will help to clarify how crucial are local initiatives in producing not simply a policy of reception but, more than that, in producing policy of settlement. It will be, finally, explored why, as result of mechanisms of non-exclusion, it is more appropriate to conceptualize the subjectivity of refugees not exclusively as "speechless emissaries," "non-citizens" and as "non-persons," but as "potentially dialogic entities."
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